Friday, 1 June 2018

Recruitment Rally Bharti in RPF/RPSF 2018

Recruitment Rally Bharti in RPF/RPSF 2018 






Candidates can click on the “New Registration” link on the home page of the Online Registration portal of RPF - Constable 01/2018 for the recruitment of Constable post and carry out the following:
Important Note :
For the female candidates who had already applied in RPF EN 01/2016, click the “Registration for female candidates already applied in Notification no.01/2016” button in the Registration portal of RPF - Constable 01/2018.
Login by entering the Registration Number & DOB as in the application of EN 01/2016, and fill in the remaining details required for your registration for Employment Notice Constable/RPF - 01/2018.
If you have forgotten your Registration Number, make use of ‘Get Register number’ option and retrieve your Registration Number of EN 01/2016.
Candidates who appeared for EN 01/2016 can either proceed with the above process or they can make a fresh registration, but NOT both.
1.    Confirm that you have read and understood the instructions clearly by clicking the checkbox.
2.    Select the Zonal Group to which you would like to apply. Please be aware that the Zonal group once selected cannot be changed after registration.
3.    Primary Registration: Enter your name, Date of Birth and Father’s name, Mother’s name, Aadhaar number(Optional), State/UT, Category, Education Board, 10th/Matric Roll number, year of passing 10th/Matric, mobile number and email-ID and then submit for registration. Before submitting for registration, ensure and confirm that all the information furnished above are correct as the details furnished for registration cannot be changed later. Please note that the email ID used for the registration must be yours and unique. Also, note that both the email and mobile number will be verified during the Online application process with an OTP.
4.    Verification of email ID and mobile number through OTP: On submitting the Registration details, an OTP will be sent to your email and another OTP to your mobile number. Click on the “Verify through OTP” link on the Home page of the online registration portal and enter the OTP received on your email and the OTP received on your mobile in the respective fields. You can proceed with the registration only by entering both the OTPs. Hence it is advised to ensure that the email id and mobile number is entered correctly during the registration.
On verification of both the email id and mobile number, a unique registration number is generated for the candidate. Candidate should note and preserve their registration number for later reference during the recruitment process and RPF will not entertain any request seeking registration number. Candidates can proceed with the online application by clicking on the “Candidate Login” link on the home page using the registration number.
5.    In the Part II & Part III page of the application, provide the details of Educational qualification, Community, Gender, Religion, ExSM, Minority, Economically backward class, Age relaxation eligibility category as applicable and other details.
·         Set priority/preferences for railways: If the candidate is eligible for more than one railway based on his zonal group, he/she must set the priority/preferences for the railways. The candidates can set their priority/preferences by clicking on the “Preference” dropdowns.
·         Detailed Educational Qualification: Furnish all the relevant information on the qualification as required in the application.
·         Choice of Exam Language: English is the default language. The candidate needs to choose any other language also apart from English, from the drop-down list of languages.
·         Candidates must fill details like Mother's tongue, Address for communication etc.
6.    Bank Details: Candidates should provide the details of the beneficiary account in which they would like to receive the refund viz. Beneficiary name, Bank name, Account Number and IFSC Code in the online application. The amount will be refunded to the account number specified by the candidate only if he/she appears for the online exam. It is mandatory for all candidates to fill their bank account details.
7.    On completion of application details as above, the candidate will be directed to the Payment page to choose payment mode ie. Bank(Online-net banking/credit card/debit card & offline-SBI Challan) or Post Office- Challan and complete the payment process.
Last date for making payment through Online modes –23:59 hours of 02-07-2018
Last date for making payment through Offline modes –23:59 hours of 05-07-2018
8.    In case of online payment, you will be automatically directed to the next stage of application for uploading documents. Those paying through Bank-offline mode, the payment confirmation may take about an hour and hence they have to again login after 60 minutes and look for confirmation of payment status. The time period for payment confirmation shall vary from 24hrs to 48 hrs in case of Post Office payment. On getting the confirmation status, the candidate can proceed further with the Online application process.
9.    Uploading of color Photograph: After the verification of Payment, candidates can upload their colour photograph. The photograph should comply with the following requirements,
·         Colour passport photograph with white/light colour background.
·         Photograph of size 35mmX45mm with name and date of photo taken printed on it.
·         It should be in JPG/JPEG format scanned with 100 DPI.
·         The size of the photograph should be between 15-40 KB.
·         The color photograph must have been taken on or after 01-12-2017 in a professional studio. Photographs taken using mobile and self-composed portraits may result in rejection of application.
·         The photo should have clear front view of the candidate without cap and sunglasses.
·         The face should occupy at least 50% of the area of the photograph with a full face view looking at the camera directly.
·         The main features of the face must not be covered by hair of the head, any cloth or any shadow.
·         Forehead, eyes, nose and chin should be clearly visible.
·         In case the candidate wears glass, then the photograph should not have any glare on glasses.
·         The photograph must match with the candidate appearance on the day of various stages of recruitment process viz. CBTs, PET and DV.
Last date for Uploading Photo and Submitting Application: 23:59 hours on 07-07-2018.
10.  Candidates are advised to keep at least 12 (Twelve) copies of the same photograph for further use as and when required during the recruitment process.
11.  Candidates belonging to SC/ST have to upload a scanned copy of their SC/ST certificates (JPG/JPEG format, 50kb – 100kb) also for availing the facility of free travel authority (Second Class Railway Pass).
12.  In the end candidates have to confirm the declaration “I hereby declare that I have gone through the eligibility criteria for the post applied for and meet all the requirements therein, that all the details furnished by me in the application are true and complete to the best of my knowledge & belief and nothing has been concealed or suppressed. I also understand that in case, any of the details furnished is found untrue during any stage of recruitment or thereafter Railway Administration shall disqualify me for the post applied for and/or I shall be liable for any other action under the extant rules.”
After confirming the above declaration and submission of the application, the candidate may download the print of the application and preserve it for reference and record.

 CLICK HERE TO FILL ONLINE APPLICATION
Recruitment Rally Bharti in RPF/RPSF 2018 


i.        A candidate must be a citizen of India.
ii.        A candidate in whose case a certificate of eligibility is necessary may be admitted to the examination but the offer of appointment may be given only after the necessary eligibility certificate has been issued to him by the Government of India.


For all candidates except the fee concession categories mentioned below
* Rs. 400/- shall be refunded duly deducting bank charges on appearing in CBT. Rs. 500/-
For candidates belonging to SC/ST/Ex-serviceman/Female/Minorities/Economically backward class. 
* This fee of Rs. 250/- shall be refunded duly deducting bank charges on appearing in CBT. Rs. 250/-

Opening Date for Submission of On-Line Application Form and Fee Payment June 1, 2018
Last Date for Registration of On-Line Application Form June 30, 2018
Last Date for Photo Upload and Final Submission July 7, 2018
Last Date for On-Line Fee Payment July 2, 2018
Last Date for Off-Line Fee Payment July 5, 2018


Thursday, 31 May 2018

Xiaomi Mi8 launch price in India Specifications

Xiaomi Mi8 launch price in India Specifications


Xiaomi has launched its latest mobile Mi8 in China.
The phone comes in three RAM/storage variants
 - 6GB/64GB, 6GB/128GB and 6GB/256GB which
are priced at Yuan 2699 (about Rs 28,500),
Yuan 2999 (about Rs 31,600) and Yuan 3299 (about Rs 34,800).


Xiaomi Mi8 launch price in India Specifications



Mi 8 specifications

Xiaomi Mi8 sports
6.21inch full HD+AMOLED display
Resolution 2248x1080p
Ration 18:7:9.
Glass and metal design
2.5 curved glass
Colour's White, Blue, Gold and Black
Phone on the latest Qualcomm Snapdragon 845 processor with LPDDR4X Ram
Front camera  20MP with the sensor, earpiece, Infrared Lighting and Infrared lens.
Phone Supports Face Unlock feature.
Xiaomi as claimed that phone also can detect face unlock in darkness also and
cannot be unlocked by photo or videos.
The front camera has 12MP+12MP dual camera
It consists of wide angle lens and led flash
Connectivity this device supports Bluetooth5.0, dual-band Wi-Fi, Dual frequency
GPS, USB Type c, Rare fingerprint sensor, A-GPS, GLONASS

Battery is 3400mAh
It has 8GB RAM and 128GB storage.
In India, it will around RS.39000

Wednesday, 30 May 2018

West indies vs ICC world eleven squad list(Hurricane Relief T20 Cricket Challenge)

West Indies vs ICC world eleven squad list(Hurricane Relief T20 Cricket Challenge)



Hurricane Relief T20 Cricket Challenge is going to play between West Indies Cricket Team and Rest of the World Eleven.

The motive of the match is to raise funds for stadiums damaged by
Hurricane Irma and Hurricane Maria in September 2017. Ronald Webster Parkin Anguilla and Dominica Windsor Park


This is the west indies vs ICC world eleven squad list for (Hurricane Relief T20 Cricket Challenge)


West Indies team names 




1.   Carlos Brathwaite(c)
2.   Rayad Emrit
3.   Andre Fletcher
4.   Chris Gayle
5.   Evin Lewis
6.   Ashley Nurse
7.   Keemo Paul
8.   Rovman Powell
9.   Denesh Ramdin(wk)
10. Andre Russell
11. Samuel Badree
12. Marlon Samuels
13. Kesrick Williams


ICC Eleven team names



  1. Shahid Afridi(c)
  2. Sam Billings
  3. Sam Curran
  4. Tamim Iqbal
  5. Dinesh Karthik
  6. Rashid Khan
  7. Sandeep Lamichhane
  8. Shoaib Malik
  9. Mitchell McClenaghan
  10. Tymal Mills
  11. Thisara Perera
  12. Adil
  13. Rashid
  14. Luke Ronchi(wk)
  15. Mohammed Sami

Hurricane Relief T20 Cricket Challenge

Hurricane Relief T20 Cricket Challenge


Hurricane Relief T20 Cricket Challenge is going to play between West Indies Cricket Team and Rest of the World Eleven.

The motive of the match is to raise funds for stadiums damaged by
Hurricane Irma and Hurricane Maria in September 2017. Ronald Webster Parkin Anguilla and Dominica Windsor Park

West Indies team names 




  1. Carlos Brathwaite(c)
  2. Rayad Emrit
  3. Andre Fletcher
  4. Chris Gayle
  5. Evin Lewis
  6. Ashley Nurse
  7. Keemo Paul
  8. Rovman Powell
  9. Denesh Ramdin(wk)
  10. Andre Russell
  11. Samuel Badree
  12. Marlon Samuels
  13. Kesrick Williams


ICC Eleven team names



Shahid Afridi(c)
Sam Billings
Sam Curran
Tamim Iqbal
Dinesh Karthik
Rashid Khan
Sandeep Lamichhane
Shoaib Malik
Mitchell McClenaghan
Tymal Mills
Thisara Perera
Adil
Rashid
Luke Ronchi(wk)
Mohammed Sami

Friday, 25 May 2018

fifa football world cup 2018 schedule pdf

fifa football world cup 2018 schedule pdf


fifa football world cup 2018 schedule pdf
This time Russia will host Fifa world cup 2018

First match will be played between Russia host and Saudi Arabia

The match will starts on 14 June 2018 18.00 local time
 
In order to get full details about schedule of the Fifa world cup 2018

Click on the link below to download the all match schedule 


Who is your favorite team comment down below and 

Who will win Fifa world cup 2018

Monday, 21 May 2018

8 Major Causes of Biodiversity|Why is Biodiversity important|22 May International Day of Biological Biodiversity

8 Major Causes of Biodiversity|Why is Biodiversity important|22 May International Day of Biological Biodiversity

·         Habitat Loss and Fragmentation:
·         Over-exploitation for Commercialization:
·         Invasive Species:
·         Pollution:
·         Global Climate Change:
·         Population Growth and Over-consumption:
·         Illegal Wildlife Trade:
·         Species extinction
      
       These are the 8 Major causes of Biodiversity


Why is Biodiversity important

Biodiversity has a number of functions on the Earth. These are as follows:
·         Maintaining balance of the ecosystem: Recycling and storage of nutrients, combating pollution, and stabilizing climate, protecting water resources, forming and protecting soil and maintaining eco-balance.
·         Provision of biological resources: Provision of medicines and pharmaceuticals, food for the human population and animals, ornamental plants, wood products, breeding stock and diversity of species, ecosystems and genes.
·         Social benefits: Recreation and tourism, cultural value and education and research.


Sunday, 20 May 2018

Jio 4G Recharge Everything About Jio Post Paid Plan 199

Jio 4G Recharge Everything About Jio Post Paid Plan 199


MRP is only Rs 199
Total Data 25GB then after Rs.20 Per 1GB
Voice Calling Free
SMS Unlimited

Few Terms and Conditions of JIO Post Paid of 199
1. The monthly rental/ minimum billing amount is exclusive of applicable taxes. 2. The unutilized benefits will be forfeited at the end of bill cycle. 3. In case of non-payment of the monthly dues, RJIL reserves the rights to provide the plan benefits in a curtailed manner at its own discretion during the grace period of up to 30 days. 4. The security deposit needs to be deposited in advance and it will become refundable (in case of service termination and after clearing all dues) only on payment of the first monthly bill. 5. The Post-paid tariff plans can be availed only by customers possessing an LTE compatible device. 6. In case of non-usage (no voice/ video call (outgoing or incoming), outgoing SMS, a data session (upload or download), usage of Value Added Services or payment of monthly rental) for a continuous period of 90 days or more, the services to the mobile number will be deactivated at the discretion of RJIL. The subscriber can opt for the safe custody scheme in case of continued non-usage of a mobile number by paying Rs 150 for every three months or part thereof. 7. Data charges will be applicable for both incoming and outgoing video calls. 8. This Plan is intended only for personal use of included services. RJIL reserves the right to discontinue the free Voice benefits offered as part of this Plan in case of misuse/ fraudulent use/ unauthorised telemarketing and commercial use. 9. The voice/SMS benefits under the Plan cannot be used for outgoing calls/SMS to premium numbers, IN numbers, international numbers and other chargeable shortcodes; the subscriber will be charged applicable tariffs for the same. 10. In Jammu and Kashmir service area these post-paid plans are available only on Rs. 250/- advance rental basis and no security deposit will be applicable. 11. This plan is available only for Jio Prime subscribers.

Jio 4G Recharge Everything About Jio Post Paid Plan 199


Jio 4G Recharge Everything About Jio Post Paid Plan 199
Jio 4G Recharge Everything About Jio Post Paid Plan 199

Friday, 18 May 2018

Exercise and diabetes| How to cure body sugar level by doing everyday workout|7 exercise and habits to cure diabetes


Exercise and diabetes| How to cure body sugar level by doing everyday workout|7 exercise and habits to cure diabetes


 Today I am going to tell you about the most common problem faced by millions of people around the world. Diabetes is the most common problem people are facing in today’s busy world. 
What I find in my point of view is that…….
1.       Because of unhealthy routine of people which leads in Diabetes.
2.       In today’s world people don’t have much time to cure about themselves.
3.       Pressure and stress are also the main causes of raising the risk of Diabetes.
Today I am going to share you my personal experience which can help you to fight against the Diabetes.
After I finished my college, I joined in a Public sector company as a manager, my routine was not so healthy as I was residing alone and don’t have much time to cook good food in time and eat healthy food. I even didn’t get any time to exercise, which leads in diabetes.
After I diagnosed with diabetes, I decided to fight against this diseases. So I make the habit of eating healthy food do regular exercise, maintain my diet plan.
When I changed my habits Sugar level in my body decreases and I was able to control my Diabetes.


Exercise to cure Diabetes

1.       Wake up in the morning without being lazy
2.       Go out and start with few kilometers of jogging
3.       After few days of jogging, start running few kilometers
4.       When you complete your running, do workouts for half an hour
5.       Make this as a habit of doing exercise in regular basis
6.       You have to regular exercise in daily basis
7.       If you didn’t get the time in morning time, do it  during evening
Consult with your doctors if your are having a very high level
If you follow these steps I am sure you will definitely fight against the diabetes.



Harmful effect of diabetes
In many cases I have seen that there is very hard and painful effects people have to face.
You can become blind
Even it leads to deaf
I have seen many people who is now total blind and deaf just because of Diabetes. You should diagnose in early stage and start the exercise in above mention manner, but if you are having very high level you should consult with your doctors. And always obey the advice the doctors.

When you have very high level of diabetes doctors will advice to use Insulin which is useful, beside that you have continue your exercise to decline in diabetes level in your body.




Thursday, 17 May 2018

Depression and Anxiety Disorder Symptoms

Depression and Anxiety Disorder Symptoms 


Depression leads to suicidal thinking

Whereas in Anxiety 

  1. People don't tend to suicide, there always a feeling of fear that something is going wrong.
  2. Sudden shoots in Blood Pressure and increases heartbeat.
  3. Anxiety last for one week to one month
  4. Anxiety can be caused due to lack of Vit B12
  5. It is a very common problem in today's society


When people suffer from Anxiety they always worried about something, Many questions come in their mind like why that person looks at me, Why he looking at me in a very doubtful way, did I said something wrong about him.

Whereas in depression always comes the feeling of negligence, people start feeling nobody loves me anymore 

Let me give you one good example so that you can understand easily
     Suppose you got admission in new college and you always wondering about, how new college will be,
are the students are good, how they will treat you, will they will be your friends, How teachers would be
All these things turn into Anxiety and you will not be able to eat food and your sleep will be lost.


These are the few common symptoms of Anxiety



  1. A feeling of overwhelming fear                                                        
  2. The feeling of going crazy or losing control
  3. Feeling you are in grave danger
  4. Feeling you might pass out
  5. A surge of doom and gloom
  6. An urgency to escape
  7. Dizziness
  8. Heart Palpitations
  9. Trembling
  10. Sweating
  11. Shortness of breath
  12. Chest pressure or pain

Monday, 14 May 2018

ICSE ISC RESULTS 2018|CLASS 10 RESULTS|CISCE

ICSE ISC RESULTS 2018|CLASS 10 RESULTS|CISCE

ICSE today i.e 14th May 2018 released the results for class 10 across the country.

As for the Official Website of ICSE, a passing percentage are as follows:


  1. 98.51% pass percentage in ICSE 2018
  2. 96.21% pass percentage in ISC 2018
  3. 61 Subject Offered in ICSE 2018
  4. 48 Subject Offered in ISC 2018
  5. 98,517 Boys Pass in ICSE 2018
  6. 40,883 Boys Pass in ISC 2018
  7. The total number of candidates who appeared for the ICSE Examination is 1,83,387
  8. The total number of candidates who appeared for the ISC Examination is 80,880
  9. Number of Boys who appeared for the ICSE Examination is 1,00,369
  10. Number of Boys who appeared for the ISC Examination is 43,052
  11. Number of Girls who appeared for the ICSE Examination is 83,018
  12. Number of Girls who appeared for the ISC Examination is 37,828
  13. Number of Girls passed in ICSE is 82,146
  14. Number of Girls passed in ISC is 36,933
CLICK IN THIS LINK TO GET ONLINE RESULTS

Wednesday, 2 May 2018

Download cbse ncert political science class 12 complete notes in english chapter wise

Download cbse ncert political science class 12 complete notes in english chapter wise

          The Cold War Era

Cuban Missile Crises:
        The Cuban Missile Crises of October 1962 was a direct and dangerous confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR) during the cold war and was the moment when the two Superpowers came closest to nuclear conflicts
It started when the USSR thought that the USA would capture Cuba which was the ally as the supporter of USSR and overthrow the Fidel Castro, the president. Cuba was the supporter of Soviet Union (USSR) and it used to receive both diplomatic and financial aid from USSR. At that time Nikita Khrushchev was the leader of the Soviet Union. In 1962 he seceded to place the nuclear missile in Cuba.
After three weeks America came to know about it. America wanted the Soviet Union to remove that Missile from Cuba. The US president Kennedy ordered the American militants to stop any Soviet ships which were heading to Cuba. There was almost a clash between the powers US & USSR. The whole world was nervous as the war was going to start between the two superpowers US & USSR. But to the world’s great relief both sides decided to avoid war. The Soviet ships returned back.

What is cold war?
           The cold war is the name given to the relationship that developed primarily between the USA and the USSR after World War 2. The cold war was not only the matter of power rivalries of military alliances and of the balance of power but it was also accompanied by a real ideology of liberal democracy and capitalism while the USSR was committed to the ideology of socialism and communism. The US, USSR, Britain and France defeated the Axis powers led by Germany, Italy and Japan and this was the end of Second World War. The world war ended when the United States dropped two atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 causing Japan to surrender and this end of Second World War was the beginning of the Cold War.

Why did the critics think that the US decision to drop the bombs in cities of Japan was unnecessary?
       It was because Japan was about to surrender. They also thought that the US actually wanted to stop the Soviet Union from making military and political gains in Asia and to show Moscow that the US was supreme and powerful.




The emergence of two superpowers after the World War 2
   After the second the second world war with the defeat of Germany and Japan, the devastation of Europe and in many other parts of the world, the US and USSR emerged as the greatest powers in the world.

The reason behind the outcome of Cold War
1.       It is believed that Cold war was an outcome of the emergence of the US and USSR as two superpower rival to each other
2.       The Second Reason is that they thought the destruction caused by the use of atomic bombs is too costly for any country to bear.

How does the cold war manage to ensure human survival
    Cold War manages to bring the deterrence relationships between the two superpowers. The war only brings the destruction and loss of human lives. Cold War does not lead to a Hot War. The cold war is just the Cold relationship between the two powers.


The emergence of two Power Blocs
What was the condition of the smaller states at the time of the emergence of two Super Blocs?
         The smaller States in the alliances used the link to the Super Powers for their own Purposes. They got the protection, weapons, and economic aids against their local rivals.

Where and how was the first division of the World started by the two Super Powers?
       The division happened first in Europe. Most countries of Western Europe side the US and those of Eastern joined the USSR, so they were called as the Western and the Eastern alliances.




NATO
       It came into existence in April 1949. It was formed by the Western Alliance US. It was an association of 12 states which declared that armed attack on any one of them in Europe and North America would be regarded as an attack on all of them. Each state would be obliged to help each other.

Warsaw Pact
    It was led by the Soviet Union. It was created in 1955 and its principal function was to counter NATO’s forces in Europe.

NAM (Non-Aligned Movement)
      The Non-Aligned Movement was formed during the Cold War as an organization of states that did not formally align themselves with either the US or the USSR. The main aim was to remain independent or neutral.

The influence of Soviet Union (USSR) in Eastern Europe

       The Soviet Union used its influence in Eastern Europe backed by the very large presence of its armies in the Eastern half of region to ensure that the eastern half of Europe remained within its sphere of influence.

Why the superpower did always need the allies countries
      Because the smaller states were helpful in gaining access to.
1.       Vital resources such as oil and minerals
2.       Territory from where the superpowers could launch their weapons and troops
3.       Locations from where they could spy on each other and
4.       Economics support from that many small allies together could help pay for military expenses



   
Arenas of the Cold War
      Arenas of the Cold War refer to areas where crises and war occurred or threatened to occur between the alliances systems but did not cross their limits.

Role of Non-Aligned Countries in reducing Cold War conflicts
    Jawaharlal Nehru one of the key leaders of the NAM played a crucial role in mediating between the two powers, other member countries of NAM also played an active role to reduce the conflicts between the two superpowers

What were the three significant agreements signed by the two superpowers for arm control
1.       Test Ban Treaty
2.       Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
3.       Anti Ballistic Missile Treaty


India and the Cold War
     India’s policy to these superpowers was neither negative nor positive. India always tried to reduce the differences between the two superpowers



CHAPTER 2

          The End OF Bipolarity

Features of Soviet System
a)      The Soviet System was very bureaucratic and authoritarian
b)      Under the Soviet System, there was lack of democracy and the absence of freedom of speech
c)       They had a very tight control over all institution and was unaccountable to the people
d)      Russia being a large country dominated everything

What was the Soviet System?
       The Soviet System gave privacy to the state and the institution of the party. This system centred on the communist party and no other political party was allowed. The economy was planned and controlled by the state.

How was the Soviet Economy?
       The Soviet economy was very developed than any of the country except for the US. The Soviet economy had a complex communication network, vast energy resources including oil, iron and steel, machinery production and a transport sector that connected the remotest areas. It had an industry that produced everything from pins to cars. Soviet ensured a minimum standard of living for all citizens. There was no unemployment.

What were the factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate the reforms in the USSR?
         Gorbachev was forced to initiate the reforms in the USSR due to following reasons:
a)      To keep the USSR abreast of information and technology revolutions as in West.
b)      To normalise the relations with the west
c)       To democratise the Soviet system
d)      To loosen the administrative system which exempted ordinary people from the privileges

  


What changes occurred after Boris Veltsin opposed the coup and emerged as a national hero?
a)      Power began to shift from the Soviet centre to the republics.
b)      The Central Asian republics did not ask for independence and wanted to remain with the USSR.
c)       In December 1991, under the leadership of Veltsin, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus three major republics of the USSR declared that the Soviet Union was disbanded.
d)      The Communist party of the Soviet Union was banned and Capitalism and Democracy were adopted

Who were the members of a Commonwealth of Independent States?
           It included Armenia, Azerbaijan, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. (Georgia joined later in 1993)

Why did the Soviet Union (USSR) disintegrate?
a)      INTERNAL WEAKNESS:
               There was no unity among themselves.

b)      ECONOMIC CAUSES:
1)      There was an economic stagnation for many years which led to severe consumer’s shortages. So people started to doubt a system.
2)      All the money was used to maintain a nuclear and military arsenal and the development of its satellite states in Eastern Europe.
3)      People started comparing the Soviet system with the advanced system of West and they realised how backward the Soviet system was.

c)       POLITICAL CAUSES:
1)      The Soviet Union had become stagnant in an administrative and political sense. People started disliking the Communist Party. People were fed up by the slow administration, corruption and also with the mistakes of the system. Bureaucrats were gaining more power than the ordinary people.
2)      People felt that Gorbachev was moving too slow in his system. Gorbachev lost support on all sides and finally, the USSR Collapsed.



d)      IMMEDIATE CAUSE:
The rise of Nationalism and the desire for Sovereignty within various Republics, now people wanted a democratic country.


          Consequences of Disintegration

1)      The disintegration of the USSR meant the end of Cold War. The dispute about the Socialist system and Capitalist system was not an issue anymore.
2)      The Superpowers had triggered a massive arms race and nuclear weapons. This disintegration brought an end to this arms race and there was a way for possible new peace.
3)      There was a change of powers relations from Socialism and Communism to Capitalism.
4)      The end of USSR meant the emergence of many new countries.
5)      The end of Cold War left open only two possibilities either the remaining superpowers would create a Uni-polar system or different countries would join and became important players in the world

The US became the superpower. Capitalist economy was the dominant economic system everywhere. World Bank and IMF became powerful advisers to all the countries and gave them loans for converting into Capitalism.


SHOCK THERAPY IN POST COMMUNIST REGIMES

What is Shock Therapy?
          The model of transition in Russia, Central Asia and East Europe that was influenced by the World Bank and the IMF came to known as Shock Therapy. It was a sudden transition from Communism to Capitalism.


OBJECTIVES OF SHOCK THERAPY
The main objective was to completely change the economic growth and development of these countries with the help of World Bank and IMF. They wanted to absorb the countries into the Western Economic System







How did the IMF And World Bank did implemented the Shock Therapy?

a)      Each of the countries was asked to make a total shift from Socialism to Capitalism
b)      Private ownership was dominant pattern of ownership
c)       Collective forms were to be replaced by private farming
d)      Development was envisaged through free trade
e)      There was an openness to foreign investment
f)       Each state from the Bloc was now linked directly.

CONSEQUENCES OF SHOCK THERAPY
1)      The economic system was totally ruined 90% of Russian industries were put up for sale to private individuals and companies. The industries were sold out at a very low price and it was known as largest garbage sale in history
2)      Most of the citizens sold their vouchers in the black market because they needed money.
3)      The value of the Russian currency declined. The rate of inflation was high that people lost all their savings.
4)      People were starving due to the shortage of food and Russia started to import food.
5)      The withdrawal of government subsidies pushed a large section of people into poverty.
6)      A mafia emerged in most of these countries and started controlling many economic activities.
7)      Russia was divided between Rich and Poor regions.
8)      The constitution of all the countries was drafted in hurry it was not drafted systematically.

INDIA AND POST COMMUNIST COUNTRIES
1)      Indo-Russia relations are marked in a history of trust and common interests.
2)      Russia and India share a vision of a multipolar World Order
3)      More than 80 bilateral agreements have been signed between India and Russia as part of the Indo-Russian strategic Agreement of 2001.
4)      India stands to benefit from its relationship with Russia on an issue like Kashmir, energy supplies, sharing information on international terrorism, access to control Asia and balancing its relations with China.
5)      Russia stands to benefits from this relationship because India is the second largest arms market for Russia. The Indian Military gets most of its hardware from Russia.
6)      Since India is an Oil importing nation, Russia is important to India and has repeatedly come to the assistance of India during its Oil crises.
7)      Russia is important for India’s Nuclear Energy plans and assisted India space industry by giving  for e.g. the Cryogenic Rocket when India needed it Russia and India have collaborated on various scientific projects




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