Wednesday, 2 May 2018

Download cbse ncert political science class 12 complete notes in english chapter wise

Download cbse ncert political science class 12 complete notes in english chapter wise

          The Cold War Era

Cuban Missile Crises:
        The Cuban Missile Crises of October 1962 was a direct and dangerous confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR) during the cold war and was the moment when the two Superpowers came closest to nuclear conflicts
It started when the USSR thought that the USA would capture Cuba which was the ally as the supporter of USSR and overthrow the Fidel Castro, the president. Cuba was the supporter of Soviet Union (USSR) and it used to receive both diplomatic and financial aid from USSR. At that time Nikita Khrushchev was the leader of the Soviet Union. In 1962 he seceded to place the nuclear missile in Cuba.
After three weeks America came to know about it. America wanted the Soviet Union to remove that Missile from Cuba. The US president Kennedy ordered the American militants to stop any Soviet ships which were heading to Cuba. There was almost a clash between the powers US & USSR. The whole world was nervous as the war was going to start between the two superpowers US & USSR. But to the world’s great relief both sides decided to avoid war. The Soviet ships returned back.

What is cold war?
           The cold war is the name given to the relationship that developed primarily between the USA and the USSR after World War 2. The cold war was not only the matter of power rivalries of military alliances and of the balance of power but it was also accompanied by a real ideology of liberal democracy and capitalism while the USSR was committed to the ideology of socialism and communism. The US, USSR, Britain and France defeated the Axis powers led by Germany, Italy and Japan and this was the end of Second World War. The world war ended when the United States dropped two atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 causing Japan to surrender and this end of Second World War was the beginning of the Cold War.

Why did the critics think that the US decision to drop the bombs in cities of Japan was unnecessary?
       It was because Japan was about to surrender. They also thought that the US actually wanted to stop the Soviet Union from making military and political gains in Asia and to show Moscow that the US was supreme and powerful.




The emergence of two superpowers after the World War 2
   After the second the second world war with the defeat of Germany and Japan, the devastation of Europe and in many other parts of the world, the US and USSR emerged as the greatest powers in the world.

The reason behind the outcome of Cold War
1.       It is believed that Cold war was an outcome of the emergence of the US and USSR as two superpower rival to each other
2.       The Second Reason is that they thought the destruction caused by the use of atomic bombs is too costly for any country to bear.

How does the cold war manage to ensure human survival
    Cold War manages to bring the deterrence relationships between the two superpowers. The war only brings the destruction and loss of human lives. Cold War does not lead to a Hot War. The cold war is just the Cold relationship between the two powers.


The emergence of two Power Blocs
What was the condition of the smaller states at the time of the emergence of two Super Blocs?
         The smaller States in the alliances used the link to the Super Powers for their own Purposes. They got the protection, weapons, and economic aids against their local rivals.

Where and how was the first division of the World started by the two Super Powers?
       The division happened first in Europe. Most countries of Western Europe side the US and those of Eastern joined the USSR, so they were called as the Western and the Eastern alliances.




NATO
       It came into existence in April 1949. It was formed by the Western Alliance US. It was an association of 12 states which declared that armed attack on any one of them in Europe and North America would be regarded as an attack on all of them. Each state would be obliged to help each other.

Warsaw Pact
    It was led by the Soviet Union. It was created in 1955 and its principal function was to counter NATO’s forces in Europe.

NAM (Non-Aligned Movement)
      The Non-Aligned Movement was formed during the Cold War as an organization of states that did not formally align themselves with either the US or the USSR. The main aim was to remain independent or neutral.

The influence of Soviet Union (USSR) in Eastern Europe

       The Soviet Union used its influence in Eastern Europe backed by the very large presence of its armies in the Eastern half of region to ensure that the eastern half of Europe remained within its sphere of influence.

Why the superpower did always need the allies countries
      Because the smaller states were helpful in gaining access to.
1.       Vital resources such as oil and minerals
2.       Territory from where the superpowers could launch their weapons and troops
3.       Locations from where they could spy on each other and
4.       Economics support from that many small allies together could help pay for military expenses



   
Arenas of the Cold War
      Arenas of the Cold War refer to areas where crises and war occurred or threatened to occur between the alliances systems but did not cross their limits.

Role of Non-Aligned Countries in reducing Cold War conflicts
    Jawaharlal Nehru one of the key leaders of the NAM played a crucial role in mediating between the two powers, other member countries of NAM also played an active role to reduce the conflicts between the two superpowers

What were the three significant agreements signed by the two superpowers for arm control
1.       Test Ban Treaty
2.       Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
3.       Anti Ballistic Missile Treaty


India and the Cold War
     India’s policy to these superpowers was neither negative nor positive. India always tried to reduce the differences between the two superpowers



CHAPTER 2

          The End OF Bipolarity

Features of Soviet System
a)      The Soviet System was very bureaucratic and authoritarian
b)      Under the Soviet System, there was lack of democracy and the absence of freedom of speech
c)       They had a very tight control over all institution and was unaccountable to the people
d)      Russia being a large country dominated everything

What was the Soviet System?
       The Soviet System gave privacy to the state and the institution of the party. This system centred on the communist party and no other political party was allowed. The economy was planned and controlled by the state.

How was the Soviet Economy?
       The Soviet economy was very developed than any of the country except for the US. The Soviet economy had a complex communication network, vast energy resources including oil, iron and steel, machinery production and a transport sector that connected the remotest areas. It had an industry that produced everything from pins to cars. Soviet ensured a minimum standard of living for all citizens. There was no unemployment.

What were the factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate the reforms in the USSR?
         Gorbachev was forced to initiate the reforms in the USSR due to following reasons:
a)      To keep the USSR abreast of information and technology revolutions as in West.
b)      To normalise the relations with the west
c)       To democratise the Soviet system
d)      To loosen the administrative system which exempted ordinary people from the privileges

  


What changes occurred after Boris Veltsin opposed the coup and emerged as a national hero?
a)      Power began to shift from the Soviet centre to the republics.
b)      The Central Asian republics did not ask for independence and wanted to remain with the USSR.
c)       In December 1991, under the leadership of Veltsin, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus three major republics of the USSR declared that the Soviet Union was disbanded.
d)      The Communist party of the Soviet Union was banned and Capitalism and Democracy were adopted

Who were the members of a Commonwealth of Independent States?
           It included Armenia, Azerbaijan, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. (Georgia joined later in 1993)

Why did the Soviet Union (USSR) disintegrate?
a)      INTERNAL WEAKNESS:
               There was no unity among themselves.

b)      ECONOMIC CAUSES:
1)      There was an economic stagnation for many years which led to severe consumer’s shortages. So people started to doubt a system.
2)      All the money was used to maintain a nuclear and military arsenal and the development of its satellite states in Eastern Europe.
3)      People started comparing the Soviet system with the advanced system of West and they realised how backward the Soviet system was.

c)       POLITICAL CAUSES:
1)      The Soviet Union had become stagnant in an administrative and political sense. People started disliking the Communist Party. People were fed up by the slow administration, corruption and also with the mistakes of the system. Bureaucrats were gaining more power than the ordinary people.
2)      People felt that Gorbachev was moving too slow in his system. Gorbachev lost support on all sides and finally, the USSR Collapsed.



d)      IMMEDIATE CAUSE:
The rise of Nationalism and the desire for Sovereignty within various Republics, now people wanted a democratic country.


          Consequences of Disintegration

1)      The disintegration of the USSR meant the end of Cold War. The dispute about the Socialist system and Capitalist system was not an issue anymore.
2)      The Superpowers had triggered a massive arms race and nuclear weapons. This disintegration brought an end to this arms race and there was a way for possible new peace.
3)      There was a change of powers relations from Socialism and Communism to Capitalism.
4)      The end of USSR meant the emergence of many new countries.
5)      The end of Cold War left open only two possibilities either the remaining superpowers would create a Uni-polar system or different countries would join and became important players in the world

The US became the superpower. Capitalist economy was the dominant economic system everywhere. World Bank and IMF became powerful advisers to all the countries and gave them loans for converting into Capitalism.


SHOCK THERAPY IN POST COMMUNIST REGIMES

What is Shock Therapy?
          The model of transition in Russia, Central Asia and East Europe that was influenced by the World Bank and the IMF came to known as Shock Therapy. It was a sudden transition from Communism to Capitalism.


OBJECTIVES OF SHOCK THERAPY
The main objective was to completely change the economic growth and development of these countries with the help of World Bank and IMF. They wanted to absorb the countries into the Western Economic System







How did the IMF And World Bank did implemented the Shock Therapy?

a)      Each of the countries was asked to make a total shift from Socialism to Capitalism
b)      Private ownership was dominant pattern of ownership
c)       Collective forms were to be replaced by private farming
d)      Development was envisaged through free trade
e)      There was an openness to foreign investment
f)       Each state from the Bloc was now linked directly.

CONSEQUENCES OF SHOCK THERAPY
1)      The economic system was totally ruined 90% of Russian industries were put up for sale to private individuals and companies. The industries were sold out at a very low price and it was known as largest garbage sale in history
2)      Most of the citizens sold their vouchers in the black market because they needed money.
3)      The value of the Russian currency declined. The rate of inflation was high that people lost all their savings.
4)      People were starving due to the shortage of food and Russia started to import food.
5)      The withdrawal of government subsidies pushed a large section of people into poverty.
6)      A mafia emerged in most of these countries and started controlling many economic activities.
7)      Russia was divided between Rich and Poor regions.
8)      The constitution of all the countries was drafted in hurry it was not drafted systematically.

INDIA AND POST COMMUNIST COUNTRIES
1)      Indo-Russia relations are marked in a history of trust and common interests.
2)      Russia and India share a vision of a multipolar World Order
3)      More than 80 bilateral agreements have been signed between India and Russia as part of the Indo-Russian strategic Agreement of 2001.
4)      India stands to benefit from its relationship with Russia on an issue like Kashmir, energy supplies, sharing information on international terrorism, access to control Asia and balancing its relations with China.
5)      Russia stands to benefits from this relationship because India is the second largest arms market for Russia. The Indian Military gets most of its hardware from Russia.
6)      Since India is an Oil importing nation, Russia is important to India and has repeatedly come to the assistance of India during its Oil crises.
7)      Russia is important for India’s Nuclear Energy plans and assisted India space industry by giving  for e.g. the Cryogenic Rocket when India needed it Russia and India have collaborated on various scientific projects




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